Sunday, July 24, 2011

Sony’s glucose-generated greener juice for gadgets

Developed a bio battery generates electricity by glucose- Meet the world's highest output - passive-type bio batteries

Sony Corporation (hereafter Sony) is a source of carbohydrates contained in plant nutrients (glucose) and biological mechanism of extracting energy applied to decompose in the enzyme activity, remove the electrical energy to generate power instead of active energy has developed a bio battery ※ 1.
<Each cell 4 prototype bio battery (left) and drive by connecting Walkman>
The prototype bio battery, as the research basis for passive bio battery ※ 2, ※ 3 has achieved the world's highest output of 50mW. You can also use the prototype bio battery, walkman (memory type) has been achieved by playing music.

In the world to achieve maximum output, so you can retrieve the electrical energy efficiently decompose glucose, enzymes and electron transport materials to help the electronic conductivity, while maintaining a high density electrode activity (negative ) has developed a technique to immobilize. In addition, efficiently be incorporated into the oxygen required for the reaction, the electrode (cathode), moderately developed a technology to keep moisture in the. High power output became possible by using an electrolyte that is optimized for these two technologies.

Glucose, the plants received sunlight, one of the substances synthesized by photosynthesis, and renewable energy sources are abundant on the earth, bio battery generates electricity by glucose is an environmentally friendly energy future The device is expected.
Sony, such as improved performance and durability to power through the development of enzyme immobilization and electrode materials will continue to conduct research and development of the various component technologies, we aim to commercialize in the future.
In addition, the research is, ACS American Chemical Society held on 19 - 23 August in Boston, Massachusetts, USA (American Chemical Society) was adopted on 234th National Meeting & Exposition, at 11 am on August 22 local time ( August 23, midnight GMT) was announced.

■ The newly developed bio battery mechanism

  • The bio battery mechanism


Bio battery generates electricity in a glucose electrode, immobilized substance and electron transfer enzyme that breaks down glucose (negative) and the electrode immobilized substance electron transport enzymes and the reduction of oxygen (cathode) and across the separator has structure.
In the negative side, the external glucose (glucose) uptake of aqueous solution, hydrogen ions and eject electrons when oxidized by the enzyme glucose degradation.
[Glucose → gluconolactone + 2H + + 2e -]
Hydrogen ions through the separator to move from the negative to the positive side. In the positive side, the uptake of oxygen in the air, water is generated by reduction with electrons and hydrogen ions.
[(1 / 2) O 2 + 2H + + 2e - → H 2 O]
Through this series of electrochemical reaction, when electrons move to the external circuit, electrical energy is extracted.

■ Main points of research and development

1) The power generation performance technologies enzyme immobilization density of the electron transport material

In the negative electrode on the electrode, the electron mediator and an enzyme must be immobilized at high density while maintaining activity. Now, as a substance that acts as a glue to immobilize these substances, we used two polymers. This immobilization method is not intended to be immobilized at high density on the electrode material and the electron transport enzymes using electrostatic interaction of two polymers of different signs with the ionic membrane ionic balance and immobilization By optimizing the electrode preparation process, we have succeeded in dramatically improving the efficiency of retrieving electronic break down the glucose.


2) The performance of the developed electrode structure generation by introducing more efficient oxygen

In the cathode, while oxygen incorporated efficiently in order to work efficiently enzymes responsible for the reduction of oxygen, must maintain a moderate amount of water in the electrodes. This time, the porous carbon electrode immobilized enzyme electron transport material, and using a cellophane separator, by optimizing their structures and processes, the positive electrode, and keep moderately moist may be able to improve the reaction efficiency.


3) The optimized structure of the battery electrolyte own bio

Typically, the concentration of sodium phosphate buffer solution contained in the bio-battery electrolytes are used by approximately 0.1 M. In contrast, the structure of the newly developed bio battery has a concentration above 1 M is used in the conventional sense. By using this electrolyte, found that the activity of the enzyme to efficiently draw is immobilized on the electrode surface, and succeeded in significantly improved power characteristics.


4) The prototype bio battery that combine a compact high-power

Was a prototype bio battery technology for compact high power with a newly developed. Bio battery is just dropping the glucose solution into contact with the anode tank, agitation of the solution is not required, is incorporated into the cathode by passive diffusion from the external nature of oxygen. Achieved the world's highest output of 50 mW at 1 unit of bio battery of 39 mm cubes on one side. This time, walkman memory types can be connected in series with a 4-unit bio battery this (NW-E407) speakers with passive (operated by power supplied from the Walkman) to be operated only by the power of bio battery, and play music able to. The bio battery casing is vegetable-based plastic (polylactic acid) made, it is the image of the cell design.

Technical specifications of the newly developed bio battery passive ■

Enzyme : (Negative side), glucose dehydrogenase, diaphorase (positive side), bilirubin oxidase
Electronic transmitter : (Negative side), Vitamin K3, NADH coenzyme
(Positive side), ferricyanide
Electrode material : Porous Carbon
Current collector materials : Titanium Mesh
Separator : Cellophane
Glucose solution : Glucose solution (0.4M) and sodium phosphate buffer (1M, pH7.0) mixed solution
Maximum output : 1.5 mW / cm 2 (0.3V, 5mA / cm 2)
Stability data generated one minute after the start of power generation ※
OCV : 0.8V

The prototype bio battery ■ (1 unit) specification

External dimensions : 39 × depth 39 × height 39 Width (mm)
The capacity of the battery : Approximately 40cc (excluding housing real size)
Maximum output : About 50 mW

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